ctags 활용

c or linux 2005. 2. 15. 01:35

출처 - JOINC WIKI

 

ctags 를 이용하면, 사용자 정의 함수가 나왔을때, 함수가 정의되어 있는 쏘스파일로 바로 점프할수 있으며, 또한 바로 원래의 쏘스파일로 되돌아올수 있다. 이렇게 함으로써 쏘스분석에 드는 시간을 상당히 줄일수 있다.
이번 문서에는 사용자가 vi 를 사용하고 있다는 가정하에 ctags 의 사용법을 설명하도록 하겠다.

ctags 는 공개 소프트웨어 임으로 쉽게 얻을수 있을것이다. 리눅스의 경우 웬만한 배포판은 기본으로 포함되어 있으니, 바로 사용하면 된다. 만약 설치되어 있지 않다면 www.rpmfind.org이나 www.freshmeat.net 등의 사이트에서 구해서 설치하면 된다.

일단 분석하고자 하는 쏘스의 디렉토리로 이동한다. 그리고 아래와 같은 방법으로 실행하면 된다.

[root@localhost user_admin_file]# ctags *
위에서 ctags 는 현재 디렉토리에 있는 모든 파일에 대해서 tags 정보를 작성하도록 했는데, 현재 디렉토리 뿐만 아니라 모든 하위디렉토리에 대해서 tags 정보를 작성하고자 한다면 "-R" 옵션을 사용하면 된다.
[root@localhost user_admin_file]# ctags -R
ctags 명령을 실행시키고 나면, ctags를 실행한 디렉토리에 tags 란 파일이 생길것이다. 여기에 각 함수가 어느파일에 설치되어 있는지에 대한 정보가 들어 있고, vi 를 실행 시키면 tags 파일을 참조하여 해당 함수가 정의되어 있는 파일로 자동으로 이동하게 된다.
tags 파일은 아래와 같이 구성되어 있다.
hello hello.c /^void hello(void)$/;" f

각필드는 "tab" 으로 구분된다. 첫번째 필드는 함수이름, 두번째 필드는 함수가 정의된 파일의 이름, 세번째 필드는(vi 를 좀 다룰줄 아는 유저 라면 익숙한 문장일 것이다), 해당 파일에서 vi가 함수명을 찾아가도록 하기위한 vi command 이다. 4번째 필드는 해당 함수의 타입이다. "f" 라면 일반 C 함수라는 뜻이며, "c" 는 클래스에 선언된 멤버함수, "d" 는 define 된 값이란 뜻이다.


이제 vi 로 분석하고자 하는 쏘스파일을 열어보자. 분석하는 중에 hello() 라는 알수없는 함수가 나와서 이 함수의 원형이 있는곳으로 이동하고 싶을 때는 hello() 함수에 커서를 위치시키고 "Ctrl + ]" 를 누르면 된다. 그러면 곧바로 hello() 함수의 원형으로 이동하게 된다.
hello() 함수에 대한 분석이 끝나서, 원래 분석하던 쏘스 파일로 돌아오고 싶다면 "Ctrl + t"키를 누르면 된다.

 

.vimrc에 set tags=d:\work\ttt\g4\base\cvm_hi\tags 이런식으로 vi가 쓸수있도록 set tags를 하느 것을 잊지 말아야 한다. = 용환 write.

 

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출처 - man page : ctags

NAME


       ctags - Generate tag files for source code

SYNOPSIS


       ctags [options] [file(s)]

       etags [options] [file(s)]

DESCRIPTION


       The  ctags and etags programs (hereinafter collectively referred to as
       ctags, except where distinguished) generate an index (or "tag") file
       for  a  variety of  language objects found in file(s). This tag file
       allows these items to be quickly and easily located by a text  editor
       or  other  utility.  A  "tag" signifies a language object for which an
       index entry is available (or, alternatively, the index  entry  created
       for that object).

       Alternatively,  ctags can generate a cross reference file which lists,
       in human readable form, information about the various  source  objects
       found in a set of language files.

       Tag  index  files  are  supported by numerous editors, which allow the
       user to locate the object associated with a name appearing in a source
       file and jump to the file and line which defines the name. Those known
       about at the time of this release are:

   Vi(1) and its derivatives (e.g. Elvis, Vim, Vile,  Lemmy),  CRiSP,
   Emacs,  FTE (Folding Text Editor), JED, jEdit, Mined, NEdit (Nir-
   vana Edit), TSE (The SemWare Editor),  UltraEdit,  WorkSpace,  X2,
   Zeus

       Ctags  is  capable  of  generating different kinds of tags for each of
       many different languages. For a complete list of supported  languages,
       the  names  by  which they are recognized, and the kinds of tags which
       are generated for each, see  the  --list-languages  and --list-kinds
       options.

SOURCE FILES


       Unless  the --language-force option is specified, the language of each
       source file is automatically selected based upon a  mapping  of file
       names  to  languages.  The mappings in effect for each language may be
       display using the --list-maps option and may  be  changed  using  the
       --langmap  option.   On platforms  which support it, if the name of a
       file is not mapped to a language and the file is executable, the first
       line  of the file is checked to see if the file is a "#!" script for a
       recognized language.

       By default, all other files names are ignored.  This  permits  running
       ctags  on  all files in either a single directory (e.g. "ctags *"), or
       on all files in an entire source directory  tree (e.g. "ctags -R"),
       since  only  those  files  whose names are mapped to languages will be
       scanned.

       [The reason that .h extensions are mapped to C++ files rather  than  C
       files is because it is common to use .h extensions in C++, and no harm
       results in treating them as C++ files.]

OPTIONS


       Despite the wealth of available options, defaults  are set  so that
       ctags  is  most commonly executed without any options (e.g. "ctags *",
       or "ctags -R"), which will create a tag file in the current  directory
       for  all recognized source files. The options described below are pro-
       vided merely to allow custom tailoring to meet special needs.

       Note that spaces separating  the  single-letter options  from their
       parameters are optional.

       Note  also that the boolean parameters to the long form options (those
       beginning with "--" and that take  a  "[=yes|no]"  parameter)  may  be
       omitted, in  which case "=yes" is implied. (e.g. --sort is equivalent
       to --sort=yes). Note further that "=1" and "=on" are  considered syn-
       onyms for "=yes", and that "=0" and "=off" are considered synonyms for
       "=no".

       Some options are either ignored or useful only when used while running
       in etags mode (see -e option). Such options will be noted.

       Most  options  may appear anywhere on the command line, affecting only
       those files which follow the option.  A few  options,  however, must
       appear before the first file name and will be noted as such.

       Options taking language names will accept those names in either upper
       or lower case. See the --list-languages option for a complete list  of
       the built-in language names.

       -a   Equivalent to --append.

       -B   Use backward  searching  patterns (e.g. ?pattern?). [Ignored in
    etags mode]

       -e   Enable etags mode, which will create a tag file for use with  the
    Emacs  editor.  Alternatively, if ctags is invoked by a name con-
    taining the string "etags" (either by  renaming,  or  creating  a
    link to, the executable), etags mode will be enabled. This option
    must appear before the first file name.

       -f tagfile
    Use the name specified by tagfile for the tag  file (default  is
    "tags",  or "TAGS" when  running in etags mode). If tagfile is
    specified as "-", then the tag file is written to standard output
    instead.  Ctags  will stubbornly refuse to take orders if tagfile
    exists and its first line contains something other than  a valid
    tags line. This will save your neck if you mistakenly type "ctags
    -f *.c", which would otherwise overwrite your first C  file with
    the tags  generated by the rest! It will also refuse to accept a
    multi character file name which begins with a '-' (dash)  charac-
    ter,  since this most likely means that you left out the tag file
    name and this option tried to grab the next option as  the file
    name.  If  you  really want to name your output tag file "-ugly",
    specify it as "./-ugly". This option must appear before the first
    file  name. If this option is specified more than once, only the
    last will apply.

       -F   Use forward  searching  patterns  (e.g.  /pattern/)   (default).
    [Ignored in etags mode]

       -h list
    Specifies  a list of file extensions, separated by periods, which
    are to be interpreted as include (or header) files. To  indicate
    files  having  no  extension, use a period not followed by a non-
    period character (e.g.  ".",  "..x",  ".x.").  This option only
    affects  how  the scoping of a particular kinds of tags is inter-
    preted (i.e. whether or not they are considered as globally visi-
    ble or  visible only within the file in which they are defined);
    it does not map the extension to any particular language. Any tag
    which  is  located in a non-include file and cannot be seen (e.g.
    linked to) from another file is considered to  have file-limited
    (e.g.  static) scope. No kind of tag appearing in an include file
    will be considered to have file-limited scope. If the first char-
    acter in the list is a plus sign, then the extensions in the list
    will be appended to the current list; otherwise,  the  list will
    replace the current list. See, also, the --file-scope option. The
    default list is  ".h.H.hh.hpp.hxx.h++.inc.def".  To restore  the
    default  list, specify -h default. Note that if an extension sup-
    plied to this option is not already mapped to a  particular lan-
    guage (see SOURCE FILES, above), you will also need to use either
    the --langmap or --language-force option.

       -I identifier-list
    Specifies a list of identifiers which are to be specially handled
    while parsing C and C++ source files. This option is specifically
    provided to handle special cases arising through the use of pre-
    processor  macros. When the identifiers listed are simple identi-
    fiers, these identifiers will be ignored during  parsing  of  the
    source  files. If an identifier is suffixed with a '+' character,
    ctags will also ignore  any parenthesis-enclosed  argument list
    which  may immediately follow the identifier in the source files.
    If two identifiers are separated  with  the '='  character,  the
    first identifiers is replaced by the second identifiers for pars-
    ing purposes. The list of identifiers may be supplied directly on
    the command  line or read in from a separate file. If the first
    character of identifier-list is '@', '.' or a pathname  separator
    ('/'  or '\'), or the first two characters specify a drive letter
    (e.g. "C:"), the parameter identifier-list will be interpreted as
    a  filename from  which  to  read a list of identifiers, one per
    input line. Otherwise, identifier-list is a list  of  identifiers
    (or identifier pairs) to be specially handled, each delimited by
    a either a comma or by white space (in which case the list should
    be quoted to keep the entire list as one command line argument).
    Multiple -I options may be supplied.  To clear the list of ignore
    identifiers, supply a single dash ("-") for identifier-list.

    This  feature is useful when preprocessor macros are used in such
    a way that they cause syntactic confusion due to their  presence.
    Indeed,  this is the best way of working around a number of prob-
    lems caused by the presence of syntax-busting  macros  in  source
    files  (see BUGS, below). Some  examples will illustrate this
    point.

       int foo ARGDECL4(void *, ptr, long int, nbytes)

    In the above example, the macro "ARGDECL4" would  be  mistakenly
    interpreted to be the name of the function instead of the correct
    name of "foo". Specifying -I  ARGDECL4  results  in the  correct
    behavior.

       /* creates an RCS version string in module */
       MODULE_VERSION("$Revision: 1.35 $")

    In the  above example the macro invocation looks too much like a
    function definition because it is not  followed  by a  semicolon
    (indeed,  it  could even be followed by a global variable defini-
    tion that would look much like a  K&R  style  function  parameter
    declaration).  In  fact,  this  seeming function definition could
    possibly even cause the rest of the file to be skipped over while
    trying  to complete the definition. Specifying -I MODULE_VERSION+
    would avoid such a problem.

       CLASS Example {
   // your content here
       };

    The example above uses "CLASS"  as a  preprocessor macro which
    expands  to something  different for each platform. For instance
    CLASS may be defined as "class  __declspec(dllexport)"  on Win32
    platforms  and  simply "class" on UNIX.  Normally, the absence of
    the C++ keyword "class" would cause the source file to be  incor-
    rectly  parsed. Correct behavior can be restored by specifying -I
    CLASS=class.

       -L file
    Read from file a list of file names for which tags should be gen-
    erated.   If  file is specified as "-", then file names are read
    from standard input. File names read using this option  are pro-
    cessed  following  file  names  appearing  on  the command line.
    Options all also accepted in this input. If this option is speci-
    fied more than once, only the last will apply. Note: file is read
    in line-oriented mode, where a new line is the only delimiter and
    spaces  are considered significant, in order that file names con-
    taining spaces may be supplied; this can affect how options  are
    parsed if included in the input.

       -n   Equivalent to --excmd=number.

       -N   Equivalent to --excmd=pattern.

       -o tagfile
    Equivalent to -f tagfile.

       -R   Equivalent to --recurse.

       -u   Equivalent to --sort=no (i.e. "unsorted").

       -V   Equivalent to --verbose.

       -w   This  option  is silently ignored for backward-compatibility with
    the ctags of SVR4 Unix.

       -x   Print a tabular, human-readable cross reference  (xref)  file  to
    standard output instead of generating a tag file. The information
    contained in the output includes: the tag name; the kind of tag;
    the line  number, file  name, and source line (with extra white
    space condensed) of the file which defines the tag. No  tag file
    is written and  all  options  affecting tag file output will be
    ignored. Example applications for this feature are generating  a
    listing  of all functions located in a source file (e.g. ctags -x
    --c-kinds=f file), or generating a list of all externally visible
    global  variables  located in  a source file (e.g. ctags -x --c-
    kinds=v --file-scope=no file). This option must appear before the
    first file name.

       --append[=yes|no]
    Indicates  whether tags generated from the specified files should
    be appended to those already present in the tag  file  or  should
    replace  them.  This  option  is off by default. This option must
    appear before the first file name.

       --etags-include=file
    Include a reference to file in the tag file. This option  may  be
    specified as many times as desired. This supports Emacs' capabil-
    ity to use a tag file which "includes" other tag  files.  [Avail-
    able only in etags mode]

       --exclude=[pattern]
    Add pattern  to  a list of excluded files and directories. This
    option may be specified as many times as desired. For  each file
    name  considered  by  ctags,  each pattern specified using this
    option will be compared against  both  the complete  path (e.g.
    some/path/base.ext) and  the  base name  (e.g. base.ext) of the
    file, thus allowing patterns which match a given file name irre-
    spective of its path, or match only a specific path. If appropri-
    ate support is available from the runtime library of your C com-
    piler,  then  pattern  may contain the usual shell wildcards (not
    regular expressions) common on Unix (be sure to quote the  option
    parameter  to  protect  the wildcards from being expanded by the
    shell before being passed to ctags; also be aware that  wildcards
    can match the slash character, '/'). You can determine if shell
    wildcards are available on your platform by examining the  output
    of the  --version option, which will include "+wildcards" in the
    compiled feature list; otherwise, pattern is matched against file
    names using a simple textual comparison.

    If pattern begins with the character '@', then the rest of the
    string is interpreted as a file name from which to read exclusion
    patterns, one per line. If pattern is empty, the list of excluded
    patterns is cleared.  Note that at program startup, the  default
    exclude  list  contains "EIFGEN", "SCCS", "RCS", and "CVS", which
    are names of directories for which it is generally not  desirable
    to descend while processing the --recurse option.

       --excmd=type
    Determines the  type  of  EX  command used to locate tags in the
    source file.  [Ignored in etags mode]

    The valid values for type (either the entire word  or  the first
    letter is accepted) are:

    number   Use only line numbers in the tag file for locating tags.
     This has four advantages:
     1. Significantly reduces the size of the resulting  tag
file.
     2. Eliminates  failures  to  find tags because the line
defining the tag has changed, causing the  pattern
match to fail (note that some editors, such as vim,
are able to recover in many such instances).
     3. Eliminates finding identical  matching,  but  incor-
rect, source lines (see BUGS, below).
     4. Retains  separate  entries in the tag file for lines
which are identical in content.  In  pattern mode,
duplicate  entries  are  dropped  because the search
patterns they generate are  identical,  making  the
duplicate entries useless.

     However,  this  option  has  one  significant  drawback:
     changes to the source files can cause the line  numbers
     recorded  in the tag file to no longer correspond to the
     lines in the source file, causing jumps to some tags  to
     miss  the target definition by one or more lines. Basi-
     cally, this option is best used when the source code  to
     which  it is applied is not subject to change. Selecting
     this option type causes  the  following  options  to  be
     ignored: -BF.

    pattern  Use  only search patterns for all tags, rather than the
     line numbers usually used for  macro  definitions. This
     has  the advantage of not referencing obsolete line num-
     bers when lines have been added or removed since the tag
     file was generated.

    mixed    In this  mode,  patterns are generally used with a few
     exceptions. For C, line numbers are used for macro defi-
     nition  tags.  This  was the default format generated by
     the original ctags and is, therefore,  retained  as  the
     default  for  this option. For Fortran, line numbers are
     used  for common blocks because their corresponding
     source  lines  are generally  identical, making pattern
     searches useless for finding all matches.

       --extra=[+|-]flags
    Specifies whether to include extra tag entries for certain kinds
    of information. The parameter flags is a set of one-letter flags,
    each representing one kind of extra tag entry to include  in  the
    tag file. If flags is preceded by by either the '+' or '-' char-
    acter, the effect of each flag is  added  to,  or  removed from,
    those  currently enabled; otherwise the flags replace any current
    settings. The meaning of each flag is as follows:

       f   Include an entry for the base file name  of every  source
   file (e.g. "example.c"), which addresses the first line
   of the file.

       q   Include an extra class-qualified tag entry  for  each  tag
   which is a member of a class (for languages for which this
   information is  extracted; currently  C++, Eiffel,  and
   Java).  The actual form of the qualified tag depends upon
   the language from which the tag was derived (using a form
   that is most natural for how qualified calls are specified
   in the language). For C++, it is in the form "class::mem-
   ber";  for  Eiffel and Java, it is in the form "class.mem-
   ber". This may allow easier location of  a  specific tags
   when multiple  occurrences of a tag name occur in the tag
   file. Note, however, that this could potentially more than
   double the size of the tag file.

       --fields=[+|-]flags
    Specifies the available extension fields which are to be included
    in the entries of the tag file (see TAG FILE FORMAT,  below,  for
    more  information). The  parameter flags is a set of one-letter
    flags, each representing one type of extension field to  include,
    with  the  following  meanings  (disabled by default unless indi-
    cated):

       a   Access (or export) of class members
       f   File-restricted scoping [enabled]
       i   Inheritance information
       k   Kind of tag as a single letter [enabled]
       K   Kind of tag as full name
       l   Language of source file containing tag
       m   Implementation information
       n   Line number of tag definition
       s   Scope of tag definition [enabled]
       S   Signature of routine (e.g. prototype or parameter list)
       z   Include the "kind:" key in kind field

    Each letter or group of letters may be preceded by either '+'  to
    add it  to the default set, or '-' to exclude it. In the absence
    of any preceding '+' or '-' sign,  only  those  kinds  explicitly
    listed  in flags will be included in the output (i.e. overriding
    the default set). This option is ignored if the option --format=1
    has been specified. The default value of this options is fks.

       --file-scope[=yes|no]
    Indicates  whether tags scoped only for a single file (i.e. tags
    which cannot be seen outside  of  the  file in  which  they  are
    defined, such as "static" tags) should be included in the output.
    See, also, the -h option. This option is enabled by default.

       --filter[=yes|no]
    Causes ctags to behave as a filter, reading  source  file names
    from standard input and printing their tags to standard output on
    a file-by-file basis. If --sorted is  enabled,  tags  are  sorted
    only within the source file in which they are defined. File names
    are read from standard output in line-oriented  input  mode (see
    note  for -L option) and only after file names listed on the com-
    mand line or from any file supplied using  the  -L option. When
    this  option  is  enabled, the  options -f, -o, and --totals are
    ignored. This  option  is  quite  esoteric and  is disabled  by
    default. This option must appear before the first file name.

       --filter-terminator=string
    Specifies a string to print to standard output following the tags
    for each file name parsed when the --filter option is  enabled.
    This  may  permit  an  application reading the output of ctags to
    determine when the output for each file is finished. Note that if
    the file name read is a directory and --recurse is enabled, this
    string will be printed only one once at the end of all tags found
    for by descending the directory. This string will always be sepa-
    rated from the last tag line for the file by its terminating new-
    line.   This  option  is  quite esoteric and is empty by default.
    This option must appear before the first file name.

       --format=level
    Change the format of the output  tag  file. Currently  the only
    valid values for level are 1 or 2. Level 1 specifies the original
    tag file format and level 2 specifies a new extended format con-
    taining extension fields (but in a manner which retains backward-
    compatibility with original vi(1) implementations). The  default
    level  is  2. This option must appear before the first file name.
    [Ignored in etags mode]

       --help
    Prints to standard output a detailed usage description  and then
    exits.

       --if0[=yes|no]
    Indicates  a  preference  as  to  whether  code within an "#if 0"
    branch of a preprocessor conditional should be examined for non-
    macro  tags (macro tags are always included). Because the intent
    of this construct is to disable code, the default value  of this
    options  is no.  Note  that this indicates a preference only and
    does not guarantee skipping code within an "#if 0" branch, since
    the fall-back  algorithm used to generate tags when preprocessor
    conditionals are too complex follows all  branches of  a  condi-
    tional. This option is disabled by default.

       --<LANG>-kinds=[+|-]kinds
    Specifies a list of language-specific kinds of tags (or kinds) to
    include in the output  file for  a particular  language, where
    <LANG>  is case-insensitive  and is one of the built-in language
    names (see the --list-languages option for a complete list).  The
    parameter  kinds is a group of one-letter flags designating kinds
    of tags (particular to the language) to either include or exclude
    from  the  output. The specific sets of flags recognized for each
    language, their meanings and  defaults  may be  list  using  the
    --list-kinds  option. Each letter or group of letters may be pre-
    ceded by either '+' to add it to, or '-' to remove it  from,  the
    default  set.  In  the  absence of any preceding '+' or '-' sign,
    only those kinds explicitly listed in kinds will be included  in
    the output (i.e. overriding the default for the specified lan-
    guage).

    As an example for the C language, in order to add prototypes  and
    external  variable declarations to the default set of tag kinds,
    but exclude macros, use --c-kinds=+px-d; to include only tags for
    functions, use --c-kinds=f.

       --langdef=name
    Defines a new user-defined language, name, to be parsed with reg-
    ular expressions. Once defined, name may be used in other options
    taking language names. The typical use of this option is to first
    define the language, then map file names to it  using  --langmap,
    then  specify  regular expressions using --regex-<LANG> to define
    how its tags are found.

       --langmap=map[,map[...]]
    Controls how file names are mapped to languages (see the  --list-
    maps  option).  Each comma-separated map consists of the language
    name (either a built-in or user-defined language), a colon, and a
    list  of file extensions and/or file name patterns. A file exten-
    sion is specified by preceding the extension with a period (e.g.
    ".c").  A file name pattern is specified by enclosing the pattern
    in parentheses (e.g. "([Mm]akefile)"). If appropriate support  is
    available  from  the runtime library of your C compiler, then the
    file name pattern may contain the usual shell wildcards common on
    Unix  (be  sure  to quote the  option  parameter to protect the
    wildcards from being expanded by the shell before being passed to
    ctags).  You  can  determine  if shell wildcards are available on
    your platform by examining the output of  the  --version  option,
    which  will include  "+wildcards" in the compiled feature list;
    otherwise, the file name patterns are matched against file names
    using a simple textual comparison.

    If the  first character in a map is a plus sign, then the exten-
    sions and file name patterns in that map will be appended to  the
    current  map  for  that language; otherwise, the map will replace
    the current map. For example, to specify  that  only  files with
    extensions of  .c and .x are to be treated as C language files,
    use "--langmap=c:.c.x"; to also add files with extensions  of  .j
    as Java  language files, specify "--langmap=c:.c.x,java:+.j". To
    map makefiles (.e.g files named either "Makefile", "makefile", or
    having the extension ".mak") to a language called "make", specify
    "--langmap=make:([Mm]akefile).mak".   To  map  files  having   no
    extension, specify a period not followed by a non-period charac-
    ter (e.g. ".", "..x", ".x."). To clear the mapping for a particu-
    lar language  (thus  inhibiting automatic generation of tags for
    that  language),  specify an   empty   extension list (e.g.
    "--langmap=fortran:").  To restore the default language mappings
    for all a particular language, supply the keyword  "default"  for
    the mapping.   To specify restore the default language mappings
    for all languages, specify "--langmap=default".  Note  that file
    extensions are  tested  before file name patterns when inferring
    the language of a file.

       --language-force=language
    By default, ctags automatically selects the language of a  source
    file,  ignoring  those  files whose language cannot be determined
    (see SOURCE FILES, above). This option forces the specified lan-
    guage  (case-insensitive;  either built-in or user-defined) to be
    used for every supplied file instead of  automatically  selecting
    the language  based upon its extension. In addition, the special
    value auto indicates that the language  should  be automatically
    selected (which effectively disables this option).

       --languages=[+|-]list
    Specifies the languages for which tag generation is enabled, with
    list containing a comma-separated list of language names  (case-
    insensitive;  either built-in or user-defined). If the first lan-
    guage of list is not preceded by either a '+' or '-', the current
    list  will be cleared before adding or removing the languages in
    list. Until a '-' is encountered, each language in the list will
    be added  to the current list. As either the '+' or removed from
    the current list, respectively.  Thus,  it  becomes  simple  to
    replace the current list with a new one, or to add or remove lan-
    guages from the current list. The actual list of files for which
    tags  will be generated depends upon the language extension map-
    ping in effect (see the --langmap option). Note  that  all lan-
    guages,  including user-defined  languages are  enabled  unless
    explicitly disabled using this option. Language names included in
    list  may be any built-in language or one previously defined with
    --langdef. The default is "all", which  is also  accepted as  a
    valid  argument.  See  the --list-languages option for a complete
    list of the built-in language names.

       --license
    Prints a summary of the software license to standard  output  and
    then exits.

       --line-directives[=yes|no]
    Specifies  whether "#line" directives should be recognized. These
    are present in the output of preprocessors and contain  the line
    number,  and  possibly  the file  name,  of  the original source
    file(s) from which the preprocessor output file  was  generated.
    When  enabled,  this  option  will cause  ctags  to generate tag
    entries marked with the file names and  line  numbers  of their
    locations  original source file(s), instead of their actual loca-
    tions in the preprocessor output. The actual  file names  placed
    into  the  tag file will have the same leading path components as
    the preprocessor output file, since it is assumed that the origi-
    nal source files are located relative to the preprocessor output
    file (unless, of course, the #line directive specifies  an abso-
    lute  path).  This option is off by default. Note: This option is
    generally only useful when used together with the  --excmd=number
    (-n)  option.  Also,  you may have to use either the --langmap or
    --language-force option if the extension of the preprocessor out-
    put file is not known to ctags.

       --links[=yes|no]
    Indicates  whether symbolic  links (if supported) should be fol-
    lowed. When disabled, symbolic links are ignored. This option  is
    on by default.

       --list-kinds[=language|all]
    Lists  the tag kinds recognized for either the specified language
    or all languages. Each kind of tag recorded in the tag  file  is
    represented by  a one-letter flag, which is also used to filter
    the tags placed into the output through use of the --<LANG>-kinds
    option.  Note  that some languages and/or tag kinds may be imple-
    mented using regular expressions and  may  not  be available  if
    regex  support is not compiled into ctags (see the --regex-<LANG>
    option). Each kind listed is enabled unless followed by  "[off]".

       --list-maps[=language|all]
    Lists  the file extensions and file name patterns which associate
    a file name with a language for either the specified language  or
    all languages. See the --langmap option, and SOURCE FILES, above.

       --list-languages
    Lists the names of the languages understood by ctags. These lan-
    guage  names  are  case insensitive and may be used in the --lan-
    guage-force,  --languages, --<LANG>-kinds, and   --regex-<LANG>
    options.

       --options=file
    Read  additional  options  from  file.  As a  special  case,  if
    --options=NONE is specified as the first option  on the  command
    line,  it will disable the automatic reading of any configuration
    options from either a file or the environment (see FILES).

       --recurse[=yes|no]
    Recurse into directories encountered  in  the  list of  supplied
    files. If the list of supplied files is empty and no file list is
    specified with the -L option, then the  current  directory (i.e.
    ".")  is  assumed. Symbolic links are followed. If you don't like
    these behaviors, either explicitly specify the files or pipe  the
    output  of find(1) into ctags -L- instead. Note: This option is
    not supported on all platforms at present. It  is available  if
    the output of the --help option includes this option.  See, also,
    the --exclude to limit recursion.

       --regex-<LANG>=/regexp/replacement/[kind-spec/][flags]
    The /regexp/replacement/  pair  define  a regular   expression
    replacement pattern,  similar  in style to sed substitution com-
    mands, with which to generate tags from source  files  mapped  to
    the named language, <LANG>, (case-insensitive; either a built-in
    or user-defined  language).  The  regular expression,   regexp,
    defines  an extended  regular  expression (roughly that used by
    egrep(1)), which is used to locate a single source line  contain-
    ing a tag and may specify tab characters using \t. When a match-
    ing line is found, a tag will be generated for the name  defined
    by replacement,  which  generally will contain the special back-
    references \1 through \9  to  refer to  matching  sub-expression
    groups  within  regexp. The '/' separator characters shown in the
    parameter to the option can actually be replaced by any  charac-
    ter. Note that whichever separator character is used will have to
    be escaped with a backslash ('\') character wherever it  is used
    in the parameter as something other than a separator. The regular
    expression defined by this option is added to the current list of
    regular expressions for the specified language unless the parame-
    ter is omitted, in which case the current list is cleared.

    Unless modified by flags, regexp is  interpreted as  a Posix
    extended  regular  expression.  The replacement should expand for
    all matching lines to a non-empty  string  of  characters, or  a
    warning  message will be reported. An optional kind specifier for
    tags matching regexp may follow replacement, which will determine
    what  kind of tag is reported in the "kind" extension field (see
    TAG FILE FORMAT, below). The full form of  kind-spec  is  in  the
    form  of  a single letter,  a comma, a name (without spaces), a
    comma, a description, followed by a separator, which specify  the
    short  and long forms of the kind value and its textual descrip-
    tion (displayed using --list-kinds). Either the kind name  and/or
    the description  may  be  omitted. If  kind-spec is omitted, it
    defaults to "r,regex". Finally, flags are one or more single-let-
    ter characters  having the following effect upon the interpreta-
    tion of regexp:

       b   The pattern is  interpreted as  a Posix  basic  regular
   expression.

       e   The pattern is  interpreted  as a Posix extended regular
   expression (default).

       i   The regular expression is to be applied in a case-insensi-
   tive manner.

    Note  that this  option  is available only if ctags was compiled
    with support for regular expressions,  which  depends  upon your
    platform. You can determine if support for regular expressions is
    compiled in by examining the  output  of  the  --version  option,
    which will include "+regex" in the compiled feature list.

    For more  information  on the regular expressions used by ctags,
    see either the regex(5,7) man page, or the GNU info documentation
    for regex (e.g. "info regex").

       --sort[=yes|no|foldcase]
    Indicates  whether the tag file should be sorted on the tag name
    (default is yes). Note that the original  vi(1)  required  sorted
    tags.   The foldcase  value specifies case insensitive (or case-
    folded) sorting.  Fast binary searches of tag files sorted with
    case-folding  will require special support from tools using tag
    files, such as that found in the ctags readtags library,  or  Vim
    version  6.2 or higher (using "set ignorecase"). This option must
    appear before the first file name. [Ignored in etags mode]

       --tag-relative[=yes|no]
    Indicates that the file paths recorded in the tag file should  be
    relative  to  the  directory containing the tag file, rather than
    relative to the current directory, unless the files supplied  on
    the command  line are specified with absolute paths. This option
    must appear before the first file name. The default is  yes when
    running in etags mode (see the -e option), no otherwise.

       --totals[=yes|no]
    Prints  statistics about  the source files read and the tag file
    written during the current invocation of ctags.  This  option  is
    off by  default. This option must appear before the first file
    name.

       --verbose[=yes|no]
    Enable verbose mode. This prints out information on option pro-
    cessing and a brief message describing what action is being taken
    for each file considered by ctags. Normally, ctags does not read
    command line arguments until after options are read from the con-
    figuration files (see FILES, below) and  the  CTAGS  environment
    variable.  However, if  this option is the first argument on the
    command line, it will take effect before  any  options  are read
    from these sources. The default is no.

       --version
    Prints a version identifier for ctags to standard output and then
    exits.  This is guaranteed to always contain the string  "Exuber-
    ant Ctags".

OPERATIONAL DETAILS


       As  ctags  considers each file name in turn, it tries to determine the
       language of the file by applying the following three tests  in  order:
       if  the file extension has been mapped to a language, if the file name
       matches a shell pattern mapped to a language, and finally if the file
       is  executable  and  its first line specifies an interpreter using the
       Unix-style "#!" specification (if supported on  the  platform). If  a
       language was  identified, the file is opened and then the appropriate
       language parser is called to operate on the currently open  file.  The
       parser  parses  through the file and adds an entry to the tag file for
       each language object it is written to handle.  See  TAG FILE  FORMAT,
       below, for details on these entries.

       This  implementation  of ctags imposes no formatting requirements on C
       code as do legacy  implementations.  Older  implementations  of ctags
       tended to rely upon certain formatting assumptions in order to help it
       resolve coding dilemmas caused by preprocessor conditionals.

       In general, ctags tries to be  smart  about  conditional preprocessor
       directives.  If a  preprocessor conditional  is encountered within a
       statement which defines a tag, ctags follows only the first branch  of
       that conditional (except in the special case of "#if 0", in which case
       it follows only the last branch). The reason for this is that  failing
       to  pursue  only one branch can result in ambiguous syntax, as in the
       following example:

      #ifdef TWO_ALTERNATIVES
      struct {
      #else
      union {
      #endif
  short a;
  long b;
      }

       Both branches cannot be followed,  or  braces  become  unbalanced  and
       ctags would be unable to make sense of the syntax.

       If  the application of this heuristic fails to properly parse a file,
       generally due to complicated and inconsistent pairing within the con-
       ditionals, ctags will retry the file using a different heuristic which
       does not selectively follow  conditional preprocessor  branches,  but
       instead falls  back to relying upon a closing brace ("}") in column 1
       as indicating the end of a block once any brace imbalance results from
       following a #if conditional branch.

       Ctags  will  also  try to specially handle arguments lists enclosed in
       double sets of parentheses in order to  accept  the  following  condi-
       tional construct:

      extern void foo __ARGS((int one, char two));

       Any  name immediately preceding the "((" will be automatically ignored
       and the previous name will be used.

       C++ operator definitions are specially handled. In order for  consis-
       tency  with  all types of operators (overloaded and conversion), the
       operator name in the tag file will always be preceded  by  the  string
       "operator  "  (i.e. even if the actual operator definition was written
       as "operator<<").

       After creating or appending to the tag file, it is sorted by  the  tag
       name, removing identical tag lines.

TAG FILE FORMAT


       When not running in etags mode, each entry in the tag file consists of
       a separate line, each looking like this in the most general case:

tag_name<TAB>file_name<TAB>ex_cmd;"<TAB>extension_fields

       The fields and separators of these lines are specified as follows:

   1.  tag name
   2.  single tab character
   3.  name of the file in which the object associated with  the  tag
       is located
   4.  single tab character
   5.  EX command used to locate the tag within the file; generally a
       search pattern (either /pattern/ or ?pattern?) or line  number
       (see  --excmd). Tag file format 2 (see --format) extends this
       EX command under certain circumstances to  include  a  set  of
       extension  fields  (described below) embedded in an EX comment
       immediately appended to the EX command, which leaves it back-
       ward-compatible with original vi(1) implementations.

       A  few  special tags  are written into the tag file for internal pur-
       poses. These tags are composed in such a way that they always sort  to
       the  top of  the  file. Therefore, the first two characters of these
       tags are used a magic number to detect a tag  file  for purposes  of
       determining  whether a valid tag file is being overwritten rather than
       a source file.

       Note that the name of each source file will be  recorded in  the  tag
       file exactly as it appears on the command line. Therefore, if the path
       you specified on the command line was relative to the  current  direc-
       tory,  then  it will be recorded in that same manner in the tag file.
       See, however, the --tag-relative option for how this behavior  can  be
       modified.

       Extension fields are tab-separated key-value pairs appended to the end
       of the EX command as a comment, as described above.  These  key value
       pairs  appear  in  the general form "key:value". Their presence in the
       lines of the tag file are controlled by the --fields option. The pos-
       sible keys and the meaning of their values are as follows:

       access    Indicates the visibility of this class member, where value
   is specific to the language.

       file    Indicates that the tag has file-limited  visibility. This
   key has no corresponding value.

       kind    Indicates  the  type, or kind, of tag. Its value is either
   one of the corresponding one-letter flags described under
   the various --<LANG>-kinds options above, or a full name.
   It is permitted (and is, in fact, the default) for the key
   portion  of this field to be omitted. The optional behav-
   iors are controlled with the --fields option.

       implementation
   When present,  this indicates  a  limited  implementation
   (abstract vs. concrete) of a routine or class, where value
   is specific to the language ("virtual" or  "pure  virtual"
   for C++; "abstract" for Java).

       inherits    When present, value. is a comma-separated list of classes
   from which this class is derived (i.e. inherits from).

       signature   When present, value. is a  language-dependent  representa-
   tion of the signature of a routine. A routine signature in
   its complete form specifies the return type of  a  routine
   and its  formal  argument  list.  This extension field is
   presently supported only for C-based languages  and does
   not include the return type.

       In  addition,  information  on  the scope of the tag definition may be
       available, with the key portion equal to some language-dependent con-
       struct  name and its value the name declared for that construct in the
       program. This scope entry indicates the scope in which the  tag  was
       found.  For  example,  a tag generated for a C structure member would
       have a scope looking like "struct:myStruct".

HOW TO USE WITH VI


       Vi will, by default, expect a tag file by the name "tags" in the cur-
       rent  directory. Once  the  tag file is built, the following commands
       exercise the tag indexing feature:

       vi -t tag   Start vi and position the cursor  at the  file  and line
   where "tag" is defined.

       :ta tag    Find a tag.

       Ctrl-]    Find the tag under the cursor.

       Ctrl-T    Return to previous location before jump to tag (not widely
   implemented).

HOW TO USE WITH GNU EMACS


       Emacs will, by default, expect a tag file by the name  "TAGS"  in  the
       current directory. Once the tag file is built, the following commands
       exercise the tag indexing feature:

       M-x visit-tags-table <RET> FILE <RET>
Select the tag file, "FILE", to use.

       M-. [TAG] <RET>
Find the first definition of TAG. The default tag  is  the
identifier under the cursor.

       M-* Pop back to where you previously invoked "M-.".

       C-u M-. Find the next definition for the last tag.

       For more commands, see the Tags topic in the Emacs info document.

HOW TO USE WITH NEDIT


       NEdit  version 5.1 and later can handle the new extended tag file for-
       mat (see --format). To make NEdit use the tag file, select "File->Load
       Tags  File".  To jump to the definition for a tag, highlight the word,
       the press Ctrl-D. NEdit 5.1 can can read multiple tag files from dif-
       ferent  directories.  Setting the X resource nedit.tagFile to the name
       of a tag file instructs NEdit to automatically load that tag  file  at
       startup time.

CAVEATS


       Because ctags is neither a preprocessor nor a compiler, use of prepro-
       cessor macros can fool ctags into either missing tags  or  improperly
       generating  inappropriate  tags. Although  ctags has been designed to
       handle certain common cases, this  is  the  single  biggest  cause  of
       reported problems.  In particular, the use of preprocessor constructs
       which alter the textual syntax of C  can fool  ctags.  You  can work
       around many such problems by using the -I option.

       White  space is treated as a separator for file names and options read
       from list files, specified using the -L option, and  in filter mode
       (specified  using the --filter option). Therefore, it is not currently
       possible to supply file names or other options containing  embedded
       white space (spaces, etc.) through these options.

       Note  that  when ctags generates uses patterns for locating tags (see
       the --excmd option), it is entirely possible that the wrong  line  may
       be  found  by your editor if there exists another source line which is
       identical to the line containing the tag. The following example demon-
       strates this condition:

      int variable;

      /* ... */
      void foo(variable)
      int variable;
      {
  /* ... */
      }

       Depending  upon which editor you use and where in the code you happen
       to be, it is possible that the search pattern  may  locate  the local
       parameter declaration in foo() before it finds the actual global vari-
       able definition, since the lines (and therefore their search  patterns
       are identical). This can be avoided by use of the --excmd=n option.

BUGS


       Ctags has more options than ls(1).

       When  parsing a C++ member function definition (e.g. "className::func-
       tion"), ctags cannot determine whether the scope specifier is a class
       name  or a namespace specifier and always lists it as a class name in
       the scope portion of the extension fields. Also, if a C++ function  is
       defined outside of the class declaration (the usual case), the access
       specification (i.e. public, protected, or private) and  implementation
       information  (e.g.  virtual,  pure  virtual) contained in the function
       declaration are not known when the tag is generated for the  function
       definition.   It will, however be  available for  prototypes (e.g
       --c++-kinds=+p).

       No qualified tags are generated for language objects inherited into  a
       class.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


       CTAGS   If  this environment  variable exists, it will be expected to
       contain a set of default options which  are  read  when ctags
       starts, after the configuration files listed in FILES, below,
       are read, but  before  any  command  line  options  are read.
       Options appearing  on  the command line will override options
       specified in this variable. Only options will  be  read from
       this  variable. Note that all white space in this variable in
       considered a separator, making it impossible to pass an option
       parameter  containing an embedded space. If this is a problem,
       use a configuration file instead.

       ETAGS   Similar to the CTAGS variable above, this variable, if  found,
       will be read when etags starts. If this variable is not found,
       etags will try to use CTAGS instead.

       TMPDIR  On Unix-like hosts where mkstemp() is available, the value  of
       this variable specifies the directory in which to place tempo-
       rary files. This can be useful if the size of a temporary file
       becomes too large to fit on the partition holding the default
       temporary directory defined at compilation time.   ctags cre-
       ates  temporary files  only  if either (1) an emacs-style tag
       file is being generated, (2) the tag file  is  being  sent  to
       standard output,  or  (3)  the program was compiled to use an
       internal sort algorithm to sort the tag files instead  of  the
       the  sort utility of the operating system. If the sort utility
       of the operating system is  being  used,  it  will  generally
       observe this variable also. Note that if ctags is setuid, the
       value of TMPDIR will be ignored.

FILES


       /ctags.cnf (on MSDOS, MSWindows only)
       /etc/ctags.conf
       /usr/local/etc/ctags.conf
       $HOME/.ctags ($HOME/ctags.cnf on MSDOS, MSWindows)
       .ctags (ctags.cnf on MSDOS, MSWindows)
      If any  of  these configuration files  exist,  each  will  be
      expected to contain a set of default options which are read in
      the order listed when ctags starts, but before the CTAGS envi-
      ronment  variable is read or any command line options are read.
      This makes  it  possible to  set up  site-wide, personal  or
      project-level defaults. It is possible to compile ctags to read
      an additional configuration file before any  of those shown
      above,  which  will  be indicated if the output produced by the
      --version option lists the  "custom-conf"  feature.  Options
      appearing in  the CTAGS environment variable or on the command
      line will override  options  specified  in  these files. Only
      options  will  be read  from these files. Note that the option
      files are read in line-oriented mode in which spaces  are sig-
      nificant (since shell  quoting is not possible). Each line of
      the file is read as one command line parameter (as if  it were
      quoted  with  single quotes). Therefore, use new lines to indi-
      cate separate command-line arguments.

       tags   The default tag file created by ctags.

       TAGS   The default tag file created by etags.

SEE ALSO


       The official Exuberant Ctags web site at:

      http://ctags.sourceforge.net

       Also ex(1), vi(1), elvis, or, better yet, vim, the official editor  of
       ctags. For more information on vim, see the VIM Pages web site at:

      http://www.vim.org/

AUTHOR


       Darren Hiebert <dhiebert@users.sourceforge.net>
       http://DarrenHiebert.com/

MOTIVATION


       "Think  ye  at  all times of rendering some service to every member of
       the human race."

       "All effort and exertion put forth by man from  the  fullness  of  his
       heart  is  worship,  if it is prompted by the highest motives and the
       will to do service to humanity."

      -- From the Baha'i Writings

CREDITS


       This version of ctags was originally derived from and inspired by  the
       ctags  program  by  Steve  Kirkendall <kirkenda@cs.pdx.edu> that comes
       with the Elvis vi clone (though virtually none of  the  original code
       remains).

       Credit  is  also due Bram Moolenaar <Bram@vim.org>, the author of vim,
       who has devoted so much of his time and energy both to developing  the
       editor as a service to others, and to helping the orphans of Uganda.

       The  section  entitled  "HOW  TO USE  WITH GNU EMACS" was shamelessly
       stolen from the info page for GNU etags.

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